On the basis of the precautionary principle, enact a directive regarding RF EMF exposure limits for protection of fauna and flora.
We propose a directive similar to Directive 2013/35/EU on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields) is enacted to protect fauna and flora.
This directive must include all biological RF EMF effects to fauna and flora. Scientific research and observations have shown that RF EMF has potential impact on fauna and flora worldwide. Here is some of the scientific proof:
- “...artificial magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic fields, generated by numerous mobile radio and wireless communication technologies. The consequences of this development have also been predicted by the critics for many decades and can now no longer be ignored. Bees and other insects disappear, birds avoid certain areas and are disoriented in other locations. Humans suffer from functional disorders and diseases. And those that are hereditary are passed on to the next generation as existing defects.” *1
- “Worldwide, the number of insects is decreasing at an alarming rate. It is known that among other causes, the use of pesticides... ...Existing research indicates another factor of anthropogenic origin, which might cause subtle adverse effects: the increasingly frequent use of artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF) such as high voltage, mobile telephony and Wi-Fi. The infrastructure of the next generation of mobile communications technologies, 5G, is being deployed without having been previously tested for possible toxic effects." *2
- “This review aims to cover experimental data on oxidative effects of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in living cells. Analysis of the currently available peer-reviewed scientific literature reveals molecular effects induced by low-intensity RFR in living cells; this includes significant activation of key pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of peroxidation, oxidative damage of DNA and changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It indicates that among 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies dealing with oxidative effects of low-intensity RFR, in general, 93 confirmed that RFR induces oxidative effects in biological systems.” *3
- "The potential effects of RF-EMF on most taxonomic groups including migratory birds, bats and bees are largely unknown. The evidence to inform the development in exposure guidelines for 5G technology is limited raising the possibility of unintended biological consequences." *4
- "Here we studied the effects of EMR from telecommunication antennas on key wild pollinator groups (wild bees, hoverflies, bee flies, remaining flies, beetles, butterflies, and wasps). We measured EMR at 4 distances (50, 100, 200 and 400 m) from 10 antennas (5 on Limnos Island and 5 on Lesvos Island, eastern Mediterranean, Greece), and correlated EMR values with insect abundance and richness (the latter only for wild bees and hoverflies). All pollinator groups except butterflies were affected by EMR." *5
- “Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact that damage afflicted on trees by mobile phone towers usually start on one side, extending to the whole tree over time.” *6
- "Currently, theoretical predictions on the underlying mechanism of chemical magnetoreception have been supported by experimental observations that exposure to radiofrequency (RF) in the MHz range disrupt bird orientation and mammalian cellular respiration. Here we show that, in keeping with certain quantum physical hypotheses, a weak 7 MHz radiofrequency magnetic field significantly reduces the biological responsivity to blue light of the cryptochrome receptor cry1 in Arabidopsis seedlings. Using an in vivo phosphorylation assay that specifically detects activated cryptochrome, we demonstrate that RF exposure reduces conformational changes associated with biological activity. RF exposure furthermore alters cryptochrome-dependent plant growth responses and gene expression to a degree consistent with theoretical predictions. To our knowledge this represents the first demonstration of a biological receptor responding to RF exposure, providing important new implications for magnetosensing as well as possible future applications in biotechnology and medicine." *7
Legal arguments for our proposal are:
- Article 37 of the CFR where "A high level of environmental protection and the improvement of the quality of the environment must be integrated into the policies of the Union and ensured in accordance with the principle of sustainable development".
- EU is competent to protect the environment via the precautionary principle article 191 (2) in the TFEU where "Union policy on the environment shall aim at a high level of protection taking into account the diversity of situations in the various regions of the Union. It shall be based on the precautionary principle and on the principles that preventive action should be taken, that environmental damage should as a priority be rectified at source and that the polluter should pay."
- Precautionary principle is explained in the chapter Precautionary principle.
(Updated in August 2022: The administrative court in Clermont-Ferrand in France has found in favour of a farmer who claimed that a 4G antenna was damaging his cows’ health, and has ordered for the antenna to be switched off for two months.)
(Updated in September 2022: The court of Coutances (Manche, France) sentenced the company Réseau de transport d'énergie (RTE) to pay just over 460,000 euros to a dairy farm in the Manche. “This means that the link between the very high voltage line and the problems encountered on the farm, such as the loss of milk production, is recognized. Other farmers can now hope to win their case, too.”)
(Updated in December 2022: On the case of the dairy farmer in Clermont-Verrand, France: The State Council reversed this decision, finding a "legal error" and considering that the administrative court had "not established the existence of a serious risk." The farmer now wants to sell his cows to spare them further suffering.)
3 Yakymencho I. et al 2015: Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensityradiofrequency radiation, https://ecfsapi.fcc.gov/file/60001122232.pdf or https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26151230/
5 Lazaro et al. 2016: Electromagnetic radiation of mobile telecommunication antennas affects the abundance and composition of wild pollinators; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301647025_Electromagnetic_radiation_of_mobile_telecommunication_antennas_affects_the_abundance_and_composition_of_wild_pollinators
6 Waldmann-Selsam et al 2016: Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27552133/
Updated in January 2023: More studies on trees:
- Ozel et al 2021: The effects of base station as an electromagnetic radiation source on flower and cone yield and germination percentage in Pinus brutia Ten; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42977-021-00085-1
- Selga T, Selga M 1996: Response of Pinus sylvestris L. needles to electromagnetic fields. Cytological and ultrastructural aspects; https://www.emf-portal.org/en/article/15081
- Balodis et al 1996: Does the Skrunda Radio Location Station diminish the radial growth of pine trees?; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0048969795049207